IHC, PSF, DNP, GNP- four abbreviations, a meeting with which is inevitable if you plan to acquire land for a summer residence or a house. Under them there are different types of plots and different possibilities of use: only for housekeeping, for recreation, for year-round living. We deal with these letters and what stands behind them.
What land can individuals purchase
In the Russian Land Code, land is divided into several types. And it depends on its purpose and location. Individuals have access to 2 types of land:
plots in settlements
Each of them is used for specific purposes. In cities, cottage settlements, villages, urban-type settlements and other settlements, any construction is possible. On agricultural land, only garden houses are allowed to be built, and not in all cases. Everything in order.
House for permanent residence =IHC
IHC - individual housing construction. Land for individual housing construction is always within the boundaries of settlements. It is intended for the construction of houses. In this case, buildings here should have a height of no more than 12 m or 3 floors.
IHC plots are a kind of monopolists: only on them capital construction is allowed by law, that is, the construction of a full-fledged structure.
IHC is suitable for those who want to live outside the city all year round and have a ready-made infrastructure.
✓ Banks love such land and can easily issue mortgages for it.
✓ You can register in the house on the IHC site (since it has a postal address).
✓ There is the necessary infrastructure, the responsibility for the creation of which is with the administration of the settlement.
✘ The main disadvantage is the price. IHC plots are objectively expensive.
✘ When buying just land, without a house, for self-construction of the latter, you will need a building permit. To obtain it, the project of the house will have to be coordinated with a whole list of authorities and departments.
How to quickly get a building permit
In some cases, a building permit can be issued online on the State Service portal. The approximate period is two weeks. We advise you to check your case on the State Service portal, since in some regions of Russia the option may not work.
House + backyard = PSF
DNP - personal subsidiary plots. The plots of private household plots are intended for the production of agricultural products. If the site is located in a village, you can build a house on it.
Private plots are always located outside the city, but not necessarily outside the boundaries of settlements. The main purpose of their acquisition is for personal farming (animals and birds are raised on them or crops are grown).
Private household plots located within settlements are called “household plots”. It is not forbidden to build houses on these, even for permanent residence, as well as household structures.
Private farms located outside the settlements are called “field plots”. Any construction here is prohibited. The plots are used only for agricultural activities.
Private household plots are suitable for those who will run the household.
✓ On private household plots, banks issue a mortgage.
✓ The tax rate for private household plots is three times lower than for individual housing construction.
✓ Construction here does not imply project approval and obtaining a special permit.
✓ A personal plot in some cases can be converted into individual housing construction, thereby increasing its value.
✘ As already mentioned, construction is prohibited in the field.
Dacha = DNP
Dacha non-profit partnership. This is an amalgamation of several summer cottages, on each of which the owners are obliged to put at least a small house. Vegetable garden or garden - at the request of the owner. DNP sites can be located both in settlements and outside them.
Plots of DNP - a place for out-of-town recreation. And one of the elements of relaxation here is the house, which must be present on the site. But whether there will be a garden or beds at the house is up to you.
Previously, DNPs were located exclusively outside of settlements, on agricultural lands. Today the law allows different options.
DNP is suitable for those who like to relax outside the city and are not particularly keen on agriculture.
✓ Adequate price.
✓ If the DNP plot is located in a village, you can register in the house.
✓ Technical expertise of the building is not required, since the requirements for summer cottages are not as stringent as for capital buildings.
✘ Mortgages for purchasing a summer residence are not the most favorite service of banks.
✘ It is imperative to put a house on the DNP site. In this case, the structure should not be capital.
✘ For all-season living, the infrastructure here is mostly poorly developed.
✘ Laying of communications - at your request and at your expense.
✘ Difficulties with registration in the house.
Summer cottage + vegetable garden = SNT
SNT is a garden non-profit partnership. This is an amalgamation of several sites for agricultural activities, and not for recreation (as in the DNP). It is possible to have a house here, but not required. SNT can be located only outside settlements and on more fertile land.
SNT plots - the territory allotted for the cultivation of agricultural crops. All other occupations are secondary here. On the land of SNT, it is not forbidden to build houses and buildings for storing crops. Gardening associations are always located outside settlements, but often close to them. Therefore, site owners have access to the necessary infrastructure.
SNT is suitable for those who are engaged in agriculture and may be planning to build a country house.
✓ Pricing is lower than that of individual housing construction (but higher than that of DNP).
✓ Fertile land.
✓ Ability to choose: build a house or not.
✘ Banks are reluctant to pledge such plots.
✘ According to the documents, all houses (even those equipped for all-season living) in SNT are considered country houses, and this is reflected in their value.
✘ The plots here are of modest size (no more than 15 acres).
✘ Installation of communications is paid by the owner.
✘ There are problems with registration in such houses.
Why are there problems when registering in the houses of DNP and SNT? The reason is that such houses, which are not located in settlements, simply do not have an address. In this case, for registration, you will have to carry out an examination of the house and receive a court decision that the house is suitable for living.
Which three letters to choose
The answer lies in the purpose for which the land is bought.
If you are going to build a capital house, it is better to choose IHS. Yes, when buying a land plot, it will be more expensive, but then you can also sell the house more profitably.
If you need a summer cottage plus a vegetable garden or garden, the best option is the DNP plot. It can be used to build a good house for living throughout the year. But you will have to think about the difficulties with registration in it in advance.
Taking land in SNT and DNP for year-round living is not always justified in terms of economy. If in IHS problems with roads, communications, infrastructure are usually solved by the administration, then in partnerships this will have to be dealt with independently or paid together with neighbors.